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Hurricane Hunters finish flying Dorian

The U.S. Air Force Reserve Hurricane Hunters fly in the eye of Hurricane Dorian, Aug. 31, 2019. The WC-130J aircraft flew through the eye of the hurricane four times to gather weather data to determine the intensity and path. (U.S. Air Force photo by Staff Sgt. Diana Cossaboom)

The U.S. Air Force Reserve Hurricane Hunters fly in the eye of Hurricane Dorian, Aug. 31, 2019. The WC-130J aircraft flew through the eye of the hurricane four times to gather weather data to determine the intensity and path. (U.S. Air Force photo by Staff Sgt. Diana Cossaboom)

Inside the eye of Hurricane Dorian during a Hurricane Hunters mission Sep. 2, 2019. The 53rd Weather Reconnaissance Squadron, an Air Force Reserve unit located at Keesler Air Force Base, Mississippi., gathered weather information from inside Dorian. The data they gather is used by the National Hurricane Center for their forecasts. (U.S. Air Force photo by U.S. Navy Midshipman First Class Julia Von Fecht)

Inside the eye of Hurricane Dorian during a Hurricane Hunters mission Sep. 2, 2019. The 53rd Weather Reconnaissance Squadron, an Air Force Reserve unit located at Keesler Air Force Base, Mississippi., gathered weather information from inside Dorian. The data they gather is used by the National Hurricane Center for their forecasts. (U.S. Air Force photo by U.S. Navy Midshipman First Class Julia Von Fecht)

1st Lt. Ryan Smithies, 53rd Weather Reconnaissance Squadron pilot, flies a WC-130J Super Hercules in the eye of Hurricane Dorian Sep. 4,2019 off the coast of Savannah, Georgia. During his mission Dorian was a category 2 hurricane and intensified into a category 3. (U.S. Air Force photo by 1st Lt. Ryan Smithies)

1st Lt. Ryan Smithies, 53rd Weather Reconnaissance Squadron pilot, flies a WC-130J Super Hercules in the eye of Hurricane Dorian Sep. 4, 2019 off the coast of Savannah, Georgia. During his mission Dorian was a category 2 hurricane and intensified into a category 3. (U.S. Air Force photo by 1st Lt. Ryan Smithies)

A WC-130J Super Hercules aircraft from the 53rd Weather Reconnaissance Squadron, aka Hurricane Hunters, taxis its way to its parking spot after completing its mission into Hurricane Dorian, Sep. 5, 2019 at Keesler Air Force Base, Mississippi. The Hurricane Hunters, have flown 25 missions in support of Dorian. (U.S. Air Force photo by Tech. Sgt. Christopher Carranza)

A WC-130J Super Hercules aircraft from the 53rd Weather Reconnaissance Squadron, aka Hurricane Hunters, taxis its way to its parking spot after completing its mission into Hurricane Dorian, Sep. 5, 2019 at Keesler Air Force Base, Mississippi. The Hurricane Hunters, have flown 25 missions in support of Dorian. (U.S. Air Force photo by Tech. Sgt. Christopher Carranza)

U.S. Naval Academy Midshipman First Class Julia Von Fecht, Training and Research in Oceanic and Atmospheric Processes in Tropical Cyclones Program team member, prepares a Navy Airborne Expendable Bathythermographs for deployment from a WC-130J Super Hercules during a Hurricane Hunter mission into Hurricane Dorian Aug. 31, 2019 over the Atlantic Ocean.

U.S. Naval Academy Midshipman First Class Julia Von Fecht, Training and Research in Oceanic and Atmospheric Processes in Tropical Cyclones Program team member, prepares a Navy Airborne Expendable Bathythermographs for deployment from a WC-130J Super Hercules during a Hurricane Hunter mission into Hurricane Dorian Aug. 31, 2019 over the Atlantic Ocean. The 53rd Weather Reconnaissance Squadron, an Air Force Reserve unit located at Keesler Air Force Base, Mississippi., gathered weather information during the mission into Hurricane Dorian. The data they gather is used by the National Hurricane Center for their forecasts. (U.S. Air Force photo by Lt. Col. Marnee A.C. Losurdo)

The radar positioning of the 53rd Weather Reconnaissance Squadron’s WC-130J Super Hercules aircraft on its way into Hurricane Dorian, Aug. 31, 2019 over the Atlantic Ocean. The Hurricane Hunters use radar, GPS, and various other instruments to track and find the center, aka “eye,” of a storm or hurricane. Although satellite imagery is an effective tool for tracking weather, it cannot collect data from within the storm environment, such as the Reserve Citizen Airmen of the 53rd WRS. (U.S. Air Force photo by Tech. Sgt. Christopher Carranza)

The radar positioning of the 53rd Weather Reconnaissance Squadron’s WC-130J Super Hercules aircraft on its way into Hurricane Dorian, Aug. 31, 2019 over the Atlantic Ocean. The Hurricane Hunters use radar, GPS, and various other instruments to track and find the center, aka “eye,” of a storm or hurricane. Although satellite imagery is an effective tool for tracking weather, it cannot collect data from within the storm environment, such as the Reserve Citizen Airmen of the 53rd WRS. (U.S. Air Force photo by Tech. Sgt. Christopher Carranza)

KEESLER AIR FORCE BASE, Miss. --

Over the last two weeks the Air Force Reserve’s 53rd Weather Reconnaissance Squadron, aka Hurricane Hunters, have flown 25 missions in support of Hurricane Dorian.

Operations began with three WC-103J’s and one C-130J Super Hercules aircraft from the 403rd Wing departing Keesler Air Force Base, Aug. 25, for Curaçao to provide weather reconnaissance support of what was Tropical Storm Dorian at the time.

The three weather crews, assigned to the 53rd WRS, had been flying fixed missions out of Curaçao the night of Aug. 26, said Maj. Kendall Dunn, 53rd WRS pilot. The tactical airlift crew, assigned to the 815th Airlift Squadron, carried extra cargo and aircraft parts to support the weather aircraft, he added.

A fix mission is when the aircraft collects weather data such as temperature, wind speed, wind direction, humidity and surface pressure. Aircrews fly through the eye of a storm four to six times to locate the low-pressure center and circulation of the storm. During each pass through the eye, crews release a dropsonde, which collects weather data on its descent to the ocean surface, specifically gathering data on the surface winds and pressure.

The Hurricane Hunters continued flying fixed missions out of Curaçao until they repositioned to Homestead Air Reserve Base, Florida on Aug. 28.

“Our mission is to go out and find the exact center of the storm and find how big the wind radius is and figure out what is going on in the storm environment,” said Capt. Garrett Black, 53rd WRS aerial reconnaissance weather officer. “We then relay that information to the National Hurricane Center to improve their forecasts.”

Due to a lack of radar and weather balloons availability over the Atlantic Ocean, the 53rd WRS flies into the storms, gathers the data, and provides this data to the NHC to assist them with their forecasts and storm warnings by transmitting the information gathered via satellite communication every 10 minutes.

In addition to their own atmospheric data collection mission, the 53rd WRS partners with the U.S. Naval Academy to collect water temperatures in front of, directly under and behind a tropical system.

“We’ve been flying with the Navy for a number of years now and they’ve been releasing buoys, in front of hurricanes and in the hurricane environment, to see how the water interacts with the atmosphere and how that overall affects the intensity of a hurricane,” said Black. “It’s adding more data to help solve this very difficult puzzle that is the genesis of storms and intensity of hurricanes.”  

The midshipmen of the Training and Research in Oceanic and Atmospheric Processes in Tropical Cyclones Program, conduct their own data collection mission as they ride along with the 53rd WRS.

While the Hurricane Hunters are collecting atmospheric measurements, we’re working closely with the loadmasters and conducting our oceanic measurements, explained U.S. Navy Capt. (Dr.) Beth Sanabia, an Oceanography Professor at USNA.

Data is collected by Airborne Expendable Bathythermographs, which are parachute buoys, are deployed from the rear of the aircraft. Depending on the flight pattern, time and oceanic features dictates how many can be deployed.   

The data collected from the buoys is processed and readied on the aircraft and uploaded to the Global Telecommunication System. The data is in a format that is recognized by forecast modeling centers around the world, such as the European, Navy and National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration forecast models.

The combined efforts of atmospheric and oceanic data collection increases the accuracy of forecasts, said Sanabia.

“Satellites are great these days, but they’re still missing a lot of (weather) information that cannot be collected via satellite,” said Black. ”So, it is important we get into the storm environment and sample in three dimensions. What’s going on in the storm by releasing our dropsondes, observing the surface of the water, and getting all the data at flight levels to create that big picture of the storm to be ingested by forecast models and minimize errors.”

As Dorian made its way closer to the Florida coast, the Hunters returned to Keesler AFB Aug. 31 and continued operations from their home station. The last mission flown in support of Hurricane Dorian was Sep. 6.